From the Nov. 2008 Issue
When it comes to morality, technologies tend to be pretty neutral. Only when
people make use of the technologies do they tend to emerge as good or evil.
Nuclear technology produced both power plants and powerful bombs. Gutenberg’s
printing press enabled the mass production of Bibles and of pornography.
And then there is Deep Packet Inspection (DPI). DPI is a technology used to
inspect the packets of information that travel across the Internet. A more extensive
examination than a simple “Packet Inspection,” which looks only
at the headers of each packet for information, DPI is increasingly used to examine
the protocols and data within each packet.
Such deep packet inspections can be used for enormous good. They can spot
spam and viruses, shuttling them off the network for further inspection or quarantine,
thus making them an essential defense against increasingly sophisticated Internet
attacks. But the same deep inspection can be used for targeted advertising,
data mining, eavesdropping and censorship.
And that’s a problem for tax and accounting professionals in private
Accountants, like many other professionals, rely heavily on their guarantees
of confidentiality. Even when using web-based accounting and payroll tools,
there is an understanding and bond that requires that client data be safeguarded.
But Congress is wrestling with the extent to which deep packet inspection
can and should be used in support of law enforcement (with or without a warrant)
and other activities. This means that in the very near future it may be possible
for anyone to identify and read packets of information over the Internet. And
while this doesn’t yet mean that they can piece together data to read
a complete tax return or filing, the possibility can’t be ruled out for
The prudent accountant, particularly one who uses the public Internet for
client communications and web-based accounting services, should begin now to
look for ways to protect the bond of client confidentiality. And that generally
means making use of three technologies for data protection:
E-mail Encryption. Back when Congress first began to authorize
the perusal of Internet e-mail, Phillip Zimmerman created a handy little program
called “Pretty Good Privacy,” or PGP. The joke was that the e-mail
encryption tool was more than pretty good — it was so good that the
U.S. government tried to send Zimmerman to prison for it. Zimmerman beat the
rap, and PGP is now a de facto standard. No one is suggesting that every e-mail
(or even every e-mail to clients) needs to be encrypted. But now would be
a good time to start learning how it works and how to use it. Zimmerman sold
the product, and you can find a lot of information at the PGP corporate website
File Encryption. While at the PGP site, you may want to also
check into their programs for archive and file encryption. After all, files
that are encrypted can’t be read. You don’t have to use PGP’s
technology for this. There are plenty of other vendors with competing products
that are just as good, and even Microsoft provides some of these tools with
its operating systems. I’m more wary of these products because the companies
involved may have other, conflicting priorities that would include breaking
the encryption to help police copyrights. The point is that this is, again,
a good time to start learning about the technologies of file encryption, because
you will likely need them … and sooner rather than later.
Virtual Private Networking. VPNs, as they are known, are
a kind of virtual, invisible tunnel through a network that opens when needed,
is virtually impenetrable and closes without a trace when the communication
is complete. VPNs are widely used for corporate and government communications
but don’t entail rocket science. Microsoft includes a basic VPN client
with its operating systems, and setting up a VPN server at the office is relatively
straightforward. And again, there are plenty of third-party providers should
you choose not to use Microsoft.
I’m admittedly a little spooky about all of this stuff. I don’t
much care for how Congress keeps hinting that it will open up networks for increased
use of deep packet inspection. I’m concerned that Congress has authorized
the Department of Justice to snoop through phone and Internet files without
bothering to get a warrant. And I am even more concerned that the Inspector
General of the Federal Bureau of Investigation reported this summer that warrantless
searches have been repeatedly and systematically abused by agents of that organization.
The bond of confidentiality doesn’t hold when the client is engaged
in a criminal activity and is the target of an investigation by law enforcement.
But at what point is confidentiality terminated if there is no formal investigation
and no warrant? Or if the investigation is conducted not by law enforcement,
but by a third party using Deep Packet Inspection technologies?
Those questions must ultimately be settled by Congress and the courts. But
in the mean time, prudent accountants will prepare to deploy the technologies
that will safeguard both their clients and their practices.